There are over 30 species in Family Blechnaceae with 8 found in Australia.
There is a lot of variation within each species plus numerous natural and cultivated hybrids
so identification can be difficult.
Sterile and fertile fronds may or may not be different.
They grow on the ground or on rocks.
There are dark scales on the rhizome, frond stalk and midrib.
Young fronds can be shades of pink or red.
Fronds are divided to various extents – in one species the frond is entire for over half its length.
The rest have fronds divided to the midrib – half the species sometimes have a basal pair of leaflets
with stalks, the others have more than 2 basal pairs with stalks.
The leaflets have sharply toothed edges.
They are called Rasp Ferns with species such as Common, Small and Prickly Rasp Ferns.
The sori, with an indusium, are in 1 or 2 rows either side of the midribs.