Information on this site is from personal observations plus various texts and internet sites
    the main ones of which are listed below.


Ian Clarke & Helen Lee, Name that Flower, 2002, (Melbourne University Press, Victoria, Australia).

David. J. Mabberley, Mabberley’s Plant Book, 4th ed. 2017, (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom).

Michael G. Simpson, Plant Systematics, 2nd ed. 2010 (Academic Press, Burlington, Massachusetts, U.S.A.).

James G. Harris & Melinda Woolf Harris, Plant Identification Terminology, 2nd ed. (Spring Lake Publishing, Spring Lake, Utah, U.S.A.).

Gwen J Harden, Ed. Flora of New South Wales, 1992 New South Wales University press.

Thomas J. Elpel, Botany in a Day, 6th ed. 2013, (HOPS Press, Pony, Montana, U.S.A.).

Flora of Australia, Volume 2 Winteraceae to Plantanaceae, Melbourne: ABRS/CSIRO Publishing, 2007.

Flora of Australia Volume 3, Hamamelidales to Casuarinales Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra (1989).

Flora of Australia Volume 11A, Mimosaceae, Acacia part 1. Melbourne : ABRS/CSIRO Publishing (2001).

Flora of Australia Volume 11b, Mimosaceae, Acacia Part 2, Melbourne: ABRS/CSIRO Publishing, 2001.

Flora of Australia Volume 12 Mimosaceae (excl. Acacia), Caesalpiniaceae Melbourne : CSIRO Australia (1998).

Flora of Australia Volume 16, Elaeagnaceae, Proteaceae 1. Melbourne : CSIRO Australia (1995).

Flora of Australia Volume 18, Podostemaceae to Combretaceae, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra (1990).

Flora of Australia Volume 25, Melianthaceae to Simaroubaceae, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra (1985).

Flora of Australia Volume 28, Gentianales. Melbourne : CSIRO Australia (1996).

Flora of Australia Volume 29, Solanaceae. Melbourne : ABRS/CSIRO Australia (1982).

Flora of Australia Volume 35, Brunoniaceae, Goodeniaceae, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra (1992)

Flora of Australia Volume 37, Asteraceae 1. Melbourne : ABRS/CSIRO Australia (2015).

Flora of Australia Volume 46, Iridaceae to Dioscoreaceae, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra (1986).

Flora of Australia Volume 48, Ferns, Gymnosperms and Allied Groups. Melbourne : ABRS/CSIRO Australia (1998).

Flora of Australia Volume 50, Oceanic islands 2, Australian Government Publishing
Service, Canberra (1993)

Flora of Victoria Vol. 3, Dicotyledons Winteraceae to Myrtaceae. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

Flora of China.


Eflora of North America.

Floyd S. Shuttleworth, Herbert H. Zin & Elmer W. Smith, Orchids, 1970 (Golden Press, New York, U.S.A.).

Keith Irvine, Orchids for the Austalian Garden, (Bay Books, Pty. Ltd. Kensington, Australia.).

Leonard Cronin, Australian Palms, cycads and pandans, 2000, (Envirobook, Annandale, N.S.W.).

S. B. Andrews, Ferns of Queensland, 1990, (Dept. of Primary Industries, Australia.).

Nan & Hugh Nicholson, Rainforest Plants, Vol 1, 5th ed 1996, Vol 2 3rd ed. 1991, Vol 3 2nd ed. 1994, Vol 4 2nd ed. 2003, 5th ed. 2000, (Terania Rainforest Publishing, The Channon, N.S.W. Australia). › flora

Australian Plant names index

International Plant Names Index Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Cathy Hope & Steve Parish, A Wild Australia Guide, Native Plants, 2008 (Steve Parish Publishing, Archerfield, Australia.)

Peter Krisch, Trees of Australia, 2015, (Reed New Holland Publishers, London, Sydney, Aukland.).

Stephanie Haslam, Noosa’s Native Plants, 3rd ed. 2011, (Noosa Integrated Catchment Assn. Inc, Tewantin, Australia.).

David L. Jones & Bruce Gray, Climbing Plants in Australia, 1988, (Reed Books, Frenchs Forest, Australia.).

Deni Brown, Encyclopedia of Herbs & their uses, 1995, RD Press, Surrey Hills, Australia.).

Denise Greig, The Australian Gardener’s Wildflower Catalogue, 1987, (Angus & Robertson, North Ryde, Australia.).

David Jones, Palms in Australia, 1984, (Reed Books, Pty. Ltd, Frenchs Forest, Australia.).

F. Mason Bailey, Quensland Flora, 1899, published under the Authority of the Queensland Government.

Stanley & Ross. Flora of South-east Queensland. Vols 1 – 3. (Department of Primary Industries. 1995.)

Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onwards. The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification
    and information retrieval. Version: 4th April 2015.’.

Botany hawaii edu

Society for Growing Australian Plants

Flora of Australia Online

Berkley edu

Baumgardt J.P. How to identify flowering plant families 2003 ed.

Randwick City Council, Street tree identification manual Vols. 1 to 6.

Stephens K.M. & Dowling R.M. Wetland Plants of Quensland. Australian Tropical Rainforest plants.

Environmental weeds of the Redlands. Redland City Council.

PlantNET – NSW Flora Online.

WFO (2020): World Flora Online. Published on the Internet; (With KewScience). Replaces The Plant List.

Encyclopedia of life

Graham Charles (compiler), WEEDpak Cotyledon ID, 2014,

Lena Struwe, Field identification of the 50 most common plant families in temperate regions, 2009,


Elizabeth A. Widjaja, New Taxa in Indonesian Bamboos, Reprinted from Reinwardtia Vol. 11 (2)(1997):57-152. 19 November 1997 Bogor.

The Editor Sandakania, No. 3. Dec 1993 Forest Research Centre, Forestry Department, P.O. Box 1407, 90008 Sandakan, Sabah, Malaysia.

Australian Government, The Biology of the Saccharum spp. Department of Health and Ageing, Office of the Gene Technology Regulator Version 3, May 2011.

F. A. McClure, Bamboos of the genus Phyllostachys, Horticultural Crop Research Branch, Agricultural Research Centre, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C. June 1957. 1124 pages all dianthus.

Flora Malesiana, Series I, Volume 16 (2002) 1-51 Caryophyllaceae Kai Larsen Aarhus, Denmark)

Plant Varieties Journal Vol. 24 No. 1

Magic and Medicine of Plants, Readers Digest, 26 – 32 Waterloo St., Surrey Hills, N.S.W. 2010, 1994, (460 pages of herbs). The Global Biodiversity Information Facility. &
    Neotropical Flora at the Field Museum of Natural History(F:Botany)

Natalia Filipowicz. Brunfelsia (Solanaceae): A genus evenly divided between South America and radiations on Cuba and other Antillean islands.

Natalia Filipowicz, Susanne S. Renner, Systematic Botany and Mycology, University of Munich (LMU), Menzinger-Str. 67, 80638 Munich, Germany. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 64 (2012) 1 – 11.

David Prain (Ed.): Brunfelsia undulata In: Curtis’s Botanical Magazine. Volume 138, Series 4, Number 8, 1912. Plate 8422. (Albuca).

Thomas A. Lumpkin and Donald L. Plucknett. Azolla: Botany, Physiology, and Use as a Green Manure.
    Economic Botany, Vol. 34, No. 2 (Apr. – Jun., 1980), pp. 111-153 (43 pages)
    Published by: Springer on behalf of New York Botanical Garden Press.

Reynolds, S.T. “New species and changes in Sapindaceae from Queensland.” Austrobaileya 3, no. 3 (1991): 489501.

Forster, P. I. (2006). Jagera madida P.I. Forst. (Sapindaceae), a new name and change of rank for J. javanica subsp. australiana Leenh. Austrobaileya, 7(2), 379–379.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility ID (GBIF) 3785904
Sapindaceae : Jagera : Jagera madida,Taxonomic Status (GBIF)accepted Obsolete Names Jagera javanica australiana References P. I. Forst. (2006) In: Austrobaileya 7(2): 379 – via Catalogue of Life. (Jagera)

Frodin, D. G. ‘Studies in Schefflera (Aralaiceae): THE Cephaloschefflera Complex.’ Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, vol. 56, no. 4, Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, 1975, pp. 427–48,

Matthew H. P. Jebb, ‘A revision of the genus Trevesia (Araliaceae)’, Botany School, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland, now at the National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, Dublin 9. Glasra 3: 85–114 (1998) (Trevesia).

Daniel H. Chitwood et. al. A Modern Ampelography: A Genetic Basis for Leaf Shape and Venation Patterning in Grape Plant Physiology, Volume 164, Issue 1, January 2014, Pages 259–272,

Asteraceae Garden Handbook, Compiled by Naarilla Hirsch, Fran Johnson, Jonette McDonnell, and Margaret Webber November 2014 (Australian National Botanic Gardens).

Titiek Setyawati et. al. A Guide Book to Invasive Plant Species in Indonesia Published by: Research, Development and Innovation AgencyMinistry of Environment and Forestry Republic of Indonesia.

A.E. Orchard 1, A new species of Sphagneticola (Asteraceae: Ecliptinae) from Indonesia, Blumea 58, 2013: 49–52

Sara Frangiote-Pallone and Luiz Antonio de Souza. Pappus and cypsela ontogeny in Asteraceae: structural considerations of the tribal category. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 85: 62-77, 2014 (Tridex).

Jean-Philippe Castillon & Jean-Bernard Castillon, On Euphorbia milii (Euphorbiaceae) and its varieties. Euphorbia World 16(3) 2020.

Beneharo Rodríguez, Felipe Siverio, Manuel Siverio, Rubén Barone & Airam Rodríguez
Nectar and pollen of the invasive century plant Agave americana as a food resource for endemic birds Published online: 24 March 2015 (Agave)

A. R. Simões, G. Staples, Dissolution of Convolvulaceae tribe Merremieae and a new classification of the constituent genera. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Volume 183, Issue 4, 1 April 2017, Pages 561–586, (Merremia).

Hallier f., Merremia dissecta (Jacq.), Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 16: 552. 1893; Austin, Florida Scientist 42: 219. 1979.

Fang R.C., G. Staples, et al. 1995. Convolvulaceae in P. Raven & C.Y. Wu (eds.) Flora of China 16: 271–325. (various).

R.M. Barker. A taxonomic revision of Australian Acanthaceae, c/- State Herbarium of South Australia, Botanic Gardens, North Terrace, Adelaide 5000 in J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 9: 1-286 (1986)

Fabio Araújo da Silva Cíntia Kameyama Daniela Zappi André dos Santos Bragança Gil The genus Justicia (Acanthaceae) in the state of Pará, Amazon, Brazil (Acanthaceae).

M. Manokari et. al. A comprehensive review on a less explored medicinally important plant Justicia betonica L.

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] (Barleria)

Shankar M Shendage and Shrirang Yadav, Revision of the Genus Barleria (Acanthaceae) in India, January 2010Rheedea 20(2). Available at

Darbyshire, I., Tripp, E.A. & Chase, F.M. (2019). A taxonomic revision of Acanthaceae tribe Barlerieae in Angola and Namibia. Part 1. Kew Bulletin 74: 5.

Dieter C. Wasshausen, The systematics of the genus Pachystachys (Acanthaceae), Roc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 99(1), 1986, pp. 160-185;

Klopper RR, Crouch NR, Smith GF, Van Wyk AE (2020) A synoptic review of the aloes (Asphodelaceae, Alooideae) of KwaZulu-Natal, an ecologically diverse province in eastern South Africa. PhytoKeys 142: 1–88.

The Genus Aloe, Botanical Notes, University of California Davis botanical conservatory, volume 1, issue 1.0, July, 2009.

Ronell R. Klopper A synoptic review of the aloes (Asphodelaceae, Alooideae) of KwaZulu-Natal, an ecologically diverse

province in eastern South Africa Biosystematics and Biodiversity Collections Division, South African National Biodiversity

Institute, Pretoria, South Africa. PhytoKeys 142: 1–88 (2020) doi: 10.3897/phytokeys.142.48365

Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2022, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 21, 2022.

Bean, A. R. “A Revision of Rubus Subg. Idaeobatus (Focke) Focke (Rosaceae) in Australia.” Austrobaileya, vol. 4, no. 4, 1997,
    pp. 677–89. JSTOR, Accessed 2 Aug. 2022.

Peter K. Endress, Merran L. Matthews, Elaborate petals and staminodes in eudicots: Diversity, function, and evolution.
    Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zurich, Zollikerstrasse 107, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland
    Received 31 May 2005.(Cunoniaceae)

Matthews, M (2001). A Comparison of Floral Structures of Anisophylleaceae and Cunoniaceae and the problem of their
    Systematic Position. Annals of Botany, 88(3):439-455. DOI:

International Dendrology Society,

Fred A. Barkley, Schinus L., Brittonia, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Sep. 8, 1944), pp. 160-198 (39 pages) 1

Lovelock, Catherine, 1964 Field guide to the Mangroves of Queensland. ©1993 Australian Institute of Marine Science

Betsy R. Jackes (2021) Aegiceras, in P.G. Kodela (ed.), Flora of Australia. Australian Biological Resources Study, Department of
Agriculture, Water and the Environment: Canberra. [Date Accessed: 25 December 2021]

Paul R. Fantz Species of Liriope Cultivated in the Southeastern United States. Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. HortTechnology July–September 2008 18 (3). Pages 343 – 348.


Graham Pizzey, A Field Guide to the Birds of Australia, 1988, (Collins Australia, Sydney, Australia.).

Clifford B. Frith, Garden Birds: Attracting Birds to Australian and New Zealand Gardens, 1986, (Doubleday Australia, Lane Cove, Australia.).

A. M. Young, A Field Guide to the Fungi of Australia, 2015, (University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, Australia.).

Pat Grey & Ed Grey, Fungi Down Under: The Fungimap Guide to Australian Fungi, 2005, (Intelligent Media, Keysborough, Victoria, Australila.).

Bruce Fuhrer, A field guide to Australian Fungi, 2009, (Bloomings Books, Melbourne, Australia.).

Bill Malcolm, Mosses and other Brophytes: an illustrated glossary.

Buck R. William, Key to the genera of Australian mosses.\Funkey – key to the Agarics of Australia.html

Roderick Westgarth Rogers, Lichens of Sub-tropical Queensland, December 2016.