Agaric mushrooms

Mushrooms with true gills.

The Agaricales.

Basidiomycota > Agaricomycetes > Agaricales.
The majority of species are typical “gilled mushrooms” with a stem and a cap which is usually fleshy and
    has gills underneath where the spores are produced.
However the order also includes a variety of other types of fruit bodies and gilled mushrooms occur in
    different orders such as Russula and Lactarius.

There are about 30-33 families, about 400 to 410 genera and over 13,000 species.
There are several genera not yet assigned to a family.

Mushroom Families that have true gills.
Common families, many with a large number of genera and species, include Agaricaceae, Amanitaceae,
    Bolbitiaceae, Cortinariaceae, Inocybaceae, Marasmiaceae, Mycenaceae, Omphalotaceae,
    Psathyrellaceae, Pleurotaceae and Pluteaceae.

Other families are Broomeiaceae, Chromocyphellaceae, Clavariaceae, Cyphellaceae, Entolomataceae,
    Fistulinaceae, Hemigasteraceae, Hydnangiaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Lyophyllaceae, Niaceae,
    Phelloriniaceae, Physalacriaceae, Porotheleaceae, Pterulace, Schizophyllaceae, Strophariaceae,
    Tricholomataceae, Tubariaceae and Typhulaceae.

Family Agaricaceae.

Basidiomycota > Agaricomycetes > Agaricales > Agaricaceae.
It has about 85 genera and the type genus is Agaricus with about 400 species.
The majority of species are typical gilled mushrooms but it also contains some puffballs, stalked puffballs
    and Bird’s Nest fungi.

General characteristics include –

  • Usually solitary, short lasting, live on dead organic material on the ground.
  • Cap from 1 to 26 cm across, often white, cream or shades of brown but may also be yellow or rarely green.
  • Caps that are either flat, convex, parasol-like or with a central hump (umbonate).
  • They may be smooth or covered in warts.
  • Some bruise rapidly when damaged (turning brown, red or yellow).
  • The gills under the cap are thin and not attached to the stem.
  • The stem is usually attached to the centre of the cap.
  • Typically there is a membrane-like partial veil between the stem and cap edge.
  • There is a ring on the stem but no volva at the base (Lepiota may have ring remnants).
  • The spore print may be white, sepia, pink, ochre or greenish.
  • It may be brown but is never rusty-brown or cinnamon-brown.