Basidiomycota > Agaricomycetes > Agaricales > Amanitaceae.
There are about 600 species worldwide with over 100 seen in Australia.
They are found on the ground near trees where they form beneficial relationships with the roots.
Most are medium to very large.
Caps are white, cream, brown, yellow, grey but occasionally red, orange, pink or green.
Most have remnants of the universal veil on the cap as warts or scaly patches.
There may be prominent marginal striations.
The gills are always pale, mostly white.
They are usually free of the stem and only rarely with a narrow attachment.
Spore prints are often white, sometimes cream or yellow, rarely greenish.
The stems are central and frequently with a swollen base.
One of their main characteristics is the universal veil which surrounds the developing fruit body.
Most species have remnants of the universal veil as a cap-like volva or sometimes as spiral rings at
the top of a swollen base.
Some have no volva or it may be difficult to see but these usually have veil remnants on the cap.
Most species also have a partial veil which leaves a ring on the stem.
These may be thick and hang down but may almost disappear with age.
A few species, the ‘grisettes’ do not have a ring.